One in every three women in the world is exposed to physical or sexual violence from a partner or sexual violence from another person. More than 2.6 billion women live in countries where rape within marriage is still not considered a crime, and High levels of infant and mother mortality, lack of education for girls and women, limited opportunities for financial independence for women, and a number of serious ill health aspects enable and increase the negative consequences of men’s violence against women.
Sexual harassment in recent times is defined as an unwelcome sexual advances and request for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when either;
⦁ The conduct is made as a term or condition of an individual’s employment, Education, living or participation in a community.
⦁ The acceptance or refusal of such conduct is used as the basis or a factor in decisions, which affects the individual’s employment or education.
⦁ The conduct unreasonably impacts the individual by creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive environment which goes a long way to distort the individual’s ability to be able to live a peaceful life.
Sexual harassment is dealt with by law when the situation becomes more critical following when;
⦁ Submission is either explicitly or implicitly a condition that affects the victim’s academic or employment decisions.
⦁ The behaviour is sufficiently severe or pervasive as to create an intimidating, hostile and repugnant environment.
⦁ The behaviour persists, despite the objections by the to whom the conduct is directed.
Generally there are two (2) types of harassment which is popularly known as “quid pro quo” and hostile environment.
⦁ Quid pro quo harassment which stands for ‘this or that’, usually occurs when it is stated or implied that, an academic or employment decision about student or employee depends on whether the student or employee submits to the conduct of sexual nature. Also this types of harassment normally comes to existence when the individual is made to submit to the conducts of sexual nature before he or she can participate in programmes or physical activities.
A typical example of QUID PRO QUO harassment is when an employee is made to believe that a promotion is likely to take place if he or she goes on a date with the supervisor…
⦁ Hostile environment sexual harassment also occurs when an unwelcomed conduct of a sexual nature creates an intimidating, threatening or abusive working and learning environment, which affects the person’s ability to participate or benefit from a school program or activity.
While a person engages in harassing behaviours, he or she often has some form of authority or power over the person being harassed, which can be very dangerous. ie: the harasser can be a peer of the person being harassed.
An example can also be a supervisee sexually harassing the supervisor. Or a student can sexually harass a faculty member.
However, SOME EXAMPLES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING;
⦁ Unwanted sexual statements.
⦁ Unwanted personal attention.
Some sexual or dirty jokes and comments on physical attributes, spreading rumours about others as to sexual activities or performances, like talking about one’s sexual activity in front of others or displaying sexually explicit drawings or materials, is mostly termed as unwanted sexual statements. Whiles
Letters, telephone calls, visits, pressure for sexual favors, pressure for unnecessary personal interactions also appears evident but remains unwanted personal attention.
Also, SOME OF THE CAUSES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT COMES WITH ;
⦁ Violence and Male self-perception
⦁ The economics of women’s work
⦁ Discrimination as a form of workplace control
⦁ Employer responsibilities
Sexual harassment in women mostly occur because women occupy inferior job positions and job roles; at the same time , sexual harassment works to keep women in such positions.
By; Miss Dzifa Fianuke.